When Fear is a Disease
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1. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4th ed. (DSM-IV). Washington, DC

2. Caballo, Vicente E. (1996) Manual of Therapeutic and Behavior Modification Techniquesd. Santos Livraria Editora. S. Paulo, Brazil (In Portuguese).

3. Gray, P. (1994) Psychology, 2nd ed. New York: Worth.

4. Kirmayer, L. J. (1991). The place of culture in psychiatric nosology: Taijin kyofusho and DSM-III-R. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 179, 19-28.

5. Lehrer, P. M., & Woolfolk, R.L. (1993) Principles and Practice of Stress Management. 2nd ed. Guilford Press. New York, NY

6. Seligman, Martin E. P. (1971). Phobias and preparedness. Behavior Therapy, 2, 307-320.

7. Webb, K., & Davey, Graham C. L. (1993). Disgust sensitivity and fear of animals: Effect of exposure to violent or revulsive material. Anxiety, Coping and Stress, 5 329-335.


About the Author

Sobre o autor: Dr. Cyro Masci CYRO MASCI is a physician, officially certified as a psychiatrist by the Federal Council of Medicine. A former assistant professor of psychiatry with the Faculty of Medicine of Santos, São Paulo, Brazil, he has published over 100 papers in specialized journals and the general press. He is the author of "Turning Point: Facing the Challenges of Life with Balance and Serenity", a self-help book published in Portuguese by Ed. Saraiva, now in its fourth edition. Dr. Masci has a private clinic, dealing specially with anxiety and depressive disorders, using a cognitive-behavioral approach and biofeedback. He is the creator of a Web site on Behavioral Medicine at


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